On October 25, 1983, 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions conducted a low-level parachute assault on Point Salinas Airfield on the Island of Grenada, during Operation Urgent Fury. Their mission was to restore democracy to the island and rescue American citizens at the True Blue Medical Campus. First and 2nd Battalions seized Point Salinas Airfield and later conducted follow on assault operations overcoming remaining pockets of resistance. On Dec. 20,1989 the entire 75th Ranger Regiment participated in Operation Just Cause. 2nd and 3rd Ranger Battalions conducted a parachuted assault on the airfield at Rio Hato, neutralized the Panama’s 6th and 7th Rifle companies, an seized Gen. Manuel Noriega’s beach house. Following the successful assaults, the rangers conducted additional follow on special operations in the country supporting Joint Task Force South.
Tags: ops, operations, special, assault, beret
The 31st Infantry Division was a unit of the Army National Guard in World War I and World War II. It was originally activated as the 10th, a division established in early 1917 consisting of Alabama, Florida, and Georgia national guardsmen. By the end of that same year, the 10th Division became the 31st. In World War II, national guardsmen from Mississippi were included in the division. When the Korean War broke out in 1950, small units and individual leaders were sent to Korea as replacements from the activated 31st Infantry Division ("Dixie"). No units were deployed, but individuals representing three-fourths of the authorized strength were sent to either Korea or Japan. The 31st Infantry Division was transferred to Fort Carson, Colorado in February 1954 from Camp Atterbury. The 31st Division as an active service formation was then reflagged as the 8th Infantry Division on 15 June 1954. The 31st Infantry (NGUS) Division was effectively reformed with units from Alabama and Mississippi. It served as a National Guard division until its inactivation on 14 January 1968. Alabama Army National Guard units subsequently became a part of the 30th Armored Division (“Volunteers”). The 31st Armored Division transitioned to a brigade in the late 1960s serving through the three decades as a separate armored brigade. In 2002 it started transitioning to a chemical brigade, initially designated the 122nd. In November 2002 the brigade was redesignated the 31st Chemical Brigade.
Mechanized infantry is infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). Mechanized infantry is distinguished from motorized infantry in that its vehicles provide a degree of protection from hostile fire, as opposed to "soft-skinned" wheeled vehicles (trucks or jeeps) for motorized infantry. Most APCs and IFVs are fully tracked or are all-wheel drive vehicles (6×6 or 8×8), for mobility across rough ground. Some nations distinguish between mechanized and armored infantry, designating troops carried by APCs as mechanized and those in IFVs as armored. The support weapons for mechanized infantry are also provided with motorized transport, or they are built directly into combat vehicles to keep pace with the mechanized infantry in combat. For units equipped with most types of APC or any type of IFV, fire support weapons, such as machine guns, autocannons, small-bore direct-fire howitzers, and even anti-tank guided missiles are often mounted directly on the infantry's own transport vehicles. Compared with "light" truck-mobile infantry, mechanized infantry can maintain rapid tactical movement and, if mounted in IFVs, has more integral firepower. It requires more combat supplies (ammunition and especially fuel) and ordnance supplies (spare vehicle components), and a comparatively larger proportion of manpower is required to crew and maintain the vehicles. For example, most APCs mount a section of seven or eight infantrymen but have a crew of two. Most IFVs carry only six or seven infantry but require a crew of three. To be effective in the field, mechanized units also require many mechanics, with specialized maintenance and recovery vehicles and equipment.
Tags: agent-carter, vn, vietnam, war, nam
The operation began with an assault of strategic installations, such as the civilian Punta Paitilla Airport in Panama City and a PDF garrison and airfield at Rio Hato, where Noriega also maintained a residence. U.S. Navy SEALs destroyed Noriega's private jet and a Panamanian gunboat. A Panamanian ambush killed four SEALs and wounded nine. Other military command centers throughout the country were also attacked. The attack on the central headquarters of the PDF (referred to as La Comandancia) touched off several fires, one of which destroyed most of the adjoining and heavily populated El Chorrillo neighborhood in downtown Panama City. During the firefight at the Comandancia, the PDF downed two special operations helicopters and forced one MH-6 Little Bird to crash-land in the Panama Canal. The opening round of attacks in Panama City also included a special operations raid on the Carcel Modelo prison (known as Operation Acid Gambit) to free Kurt Muse, a US citizen convicted of espionage by Noriega.
Tags: patch, retirees, vets, veterans, veteran
After two deployments to Panama to prevent hostile actions against U.S. personnel and facilities, the 519th Military Police Battalion returned to Panama on December 20, 1989, and participated in Operation Just Cause to protect U.S. lives, property, and interests in the Republic of Panama.
Tags: just, cause, 519, 519th, military
As the 25th Infantry Division prepared to deploy to Vietnam in 1966, it was found to be short on personnel. In January 1966, the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry and the 4th Battalion, 23rd Infantry (Mechanized) were assigned from Alaska. The 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry was relieved on 14 January 1966 from assignment to the 171st Infantry Brigade and assigned to the 25th Infantry Division. The Battalion was inactivated on 5 June 1972 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. It was relieved on 2 August 1972 from assignment to the 25th Infantry Division, it was assigned to the 172nd Infantry Brigade, and activated at Fort Wainwright, Alaska. It was inactivated on 6 January 1983 at Fort Wainwright, Alaska, and relieved from assignment to the 172nd Infantry Brigade. The Battalion was then reassigned on 29 April 1983 to the 7th Infantry Division and activated at Fort Ord, California. It was relieved on 16 April 1987 from assignment to the 7th Infantry Division and was reassigned to the 6th Infantry Division. It was inactivated again on 15 December 1995 at Fort Wainwright, Alaska and relieved from assignment to the 6th Infantry Division. The unit was redesignated on 1 October 2005 as the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment and assigned on 1 June 2006 to the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Lewis, Washington.
Tags: soldier, policeman, ribbon, platoon, enforcement
The 27th Infantry Division was a unit of the Army National Guard in World War I and World War II. The division traces its history from the New York Division, formed originally in 1908. The 6th Division designation was changed to the 27th Division in July 1917. When the New York Division was organized in 1908, the New York National Guard became the second state, after Pennsylvania, to structure its National Guard at such a high tactical level in peacetime. The New York Division was called to active duty during the Mexican border crisis of 1916. While on federal duty, it was redesignated as the 6th Division in June 1916. It was released from active duty in December 1916, only to be recalled for World War I service in July 1917. The 6th Division was reorganized and redesignated as the 27th Division on 1 October 1917.
Tags: iv, iii, ii, i, freedom
Moved to the Southwest Pacific, via Capetown, Feb-Mar 1942. Became part of Fifth AF. Equipped first with B-17's, but converted to B-24's, May-Sep 1943. Operated from Australia, New Guinea, and Owi Island, Aug 1941-Nov 1944, making numerous attacks on Japanese shipping in the Netherlands East Indies and the Bismarck Archipelago. Experimented with skip bombing and used this method for some shipping strikes, including attacks on Japanese vessels during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, 2-4 Mar 1943; received a DUC for participation in this latter action in which repeated air attacks destroyed a large enemy convoy carrying reinforcements to New Guinea. Other operations during this period included support for ground forces on New Guinea; attacks on airfields and installations in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, Celebes, Halmahera, Yap, Palau, and the southern Philippines; and long-range raids against oil refineries on Ceram and Borneo. Capt Jay Zeamer Jr, pilot, and 2nd Lt Joseph R Sarnoski, bombardier, each won the Medal of Honor for action during a photographic mapping mission over the Solomon Islands on 16 Jun 1943: when the mission was nearly completed, their aircraft was assaulted by about 20 interceptors; although painfully wounded, Lt Sarnoski remained at the nose guns and fired at the enemy until he died at his post; sustaining severe injuries, Capt Zeamer maneuvered the plane until the enemy had broken combat, then directed the flight to a base more than 500 miles away. After moving to the Philippines in Nov 1944, the group atttacked shipping along the Asiatic coast; struck industries, airfields, and installations in China and Formosa; and supported ground forces on Luzon. Moved to Ie Shima in Jul 1945 and conducted missions against airfields and railways in Japan and against shipping in the Inland Sea and the Sea of Japan. Returned to the Philippines in in Dec 1945. Inactivated on 29 Apr 1946.
Tags: af, bs, bg, sw, southwest
he Twelfth was again inactivated on 3 February 1962. On 1 September 1963 the squadron was redesignated the First Battalion and reactivated and assigned to the First Cavalry Division in Korea. In June 1965, the battalion's colors were returned to Fort Benning, Georgia and assigned to a battalion of the 11th Air Assault Division (Test), in preparation for duty in the Republic of Vietnam. During the Vietnam War units of the battalion participated in 12 campaigns and earned three Presidential Unit Citations and three Valorous Unit Awards for actions against the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. In June 1972 the battalion returned from Vietnam to its new home at Fort Hood, Texas where it was organized as an M113A1 equipped mechanized infantry battalion, a maneuver battalion of the 1st Brigade of the Army's 1st Cavalry Division (TRICAP). Significant during the battalion's TRICAP period in 1972, it participated in a massive removal of unexploded ordnance in the impact area of Ft. Hood, much of it dating to WW II, in preparation for the conduct of a several week multi division force on force exercise pitting the TRICAP Division against 2nd Armored Division in Operation Gallant Hand. The 1st Battalion's work during this exercise was a further extension of work done by the 2nd Battalion, 12th Cavalry with other units of the 1st Brigade during Air Cavalry Combat Brigade Tests 1 and 2 to evaluate the TRICAP organization of armor, air assault, assault helicopter and mechanized infantry as a combined arms force operating against Soviet style ground forces. LTC Kelley commanded the battalion at this time.
Tags: nam, vn, vietnam, sqdrn, regt
Exercise Reforger (from return of forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact. Although most troops deployed were from the United States, the operation also involved a substantial number of troops from other NATO nations including Canada and the United Kingdom. The Reforger exercise itself was first conceived in 1967. The Johnson administration announced plans to withdraw approximately two divisions from Europe during 1968. As a demonstration of its continuing commitment to the defense of NATO and to illustrate its capability of rapid reinforcement, a large scale force deployment was planned that would deploy a division or more to West Germany in a regular annual exercise. The first such exercise was conducted beginning on 6 January 1969. These exercises continued annually past the end of the Cold War, except for the year 1989, until 1993. Reforger 1975 marked the operational presence of the United States Marine Corps in Europe for the first time since World War I when the 2nd Marine Division's 32nd Marine Amphibious Unit (32nd MAU) was deployed from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina as part of that exercise. Reforger 1988 was billed as the largest European ground maneuver since the end of World War II as 125,000 troops were deployed. Reforger was not merely a show of force—in the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.
Tags: agent-carter, cold, exercise, star, 6th
The US Army is rushing to stand up cyber forces but its progress shows both how far we’ve come, and how far we have to go. “From an initial start of six officers in 2014… today we have 397 officers, 141 warrant officers, and 560 non-commissioned officers and soldiers” in the Army’s recently created cyber branch, the four-star Vice Chief of Staff, Gen. Daniel Allyn, told an Association of the US Army conference last week. That’s just over 1,000 specialists of all ranks. (Another 962 soldiers are in the related field of electronic warfare).
Tags: agent-carter, will, diamond, p, personnel
The 2d Squadron, 17th Cavalry was originally deployed to Vietnam on 12 December 1967 as the ground cavalry squadron of the 101st Airborne Division, but as the division changed to an airmobile mode the squadron was converted to an air cavalry status during the period December 1968 - June 1969. Troops A, B and C (airmobile aviation) thus joined the squadron in March 1969 to complete the conversion. It should be noted that the previous Troop A (ground reconnaissance) had been serving the 1st Brigade of the division since 29 July 1965. The entire squadron was involved in intense aerial combat during the Operation Lam Son 719 invasion of Laos, when the helicopters supported the Army of the Republic of Vietnam's drive and retreat directly. This action took place between February and April 1971. In 1970-71 the squadron raised provisional air cavalry Troops E and F. The squadron departed Vietnam on 8 February 1972.
Tags: iraq, iraqi, operation, patch, inf